D - J

Updated by Amy Thomas



See Reasonable Adjustments.

Disparate Impact

In the context of employment, disparate impact occurs when members of a protected group or minority (e.g., a particular race, gender, etc.) receive unfavourable employment decisions (e.g., not being hired) more often than another nonminority group. Some examples of protected groups include race, religion, national origin, age, sex, pregnancy, disability, genetics, and veteran status.

Discrimination legislation prohibits discrimination against these protected classes in employment decisions. Any criteria used to select employees should not discriminate solely based on membership within any of these protected groups.

Disparate impact, also known as adverse impact, is a form of indirect and often unintentional discrimination whereby certain hiring criteria disproportionately favour certain groups over other groups. However, almost every selection methodology used by employers produces a degree of disparate impact because each disproportionately excludes members of a protected group. Basic selection criteria such as background checks, credit checks, work experience, pre-employment tests, and minimum educational requirements can lead to disparate impact. However, using these criteria in the hiring process is legal if it is job-related and consistent with business necessity.


Employee Personality Profile (EPP)

See Employee Personality Profile.


See Emotify.


An event is an activity that your candidates complete for their application with you. This might be a scheduled activity, such as an assessment or interview calendar invitation, or one the candidate chooses to complete, such as an application form. Each event in the Criteria platform is given a unique event ID, which the candidate will use to return to that activity if they are interrupted.

Export List

You can export a list of your candidates, including the date the candidates applied, candidate names, candidate emails, job applied for, pipeline stage, source, and rating if available. If an application form has been included in the job, the candidates' responses to the questions will also be included.

See also Report.



General Aptitude Mobile Evaluation (GAME)

See General Aptitude Mobile Evaluation.



Invalid Result

Several Criteria assessments have built-in validity checks that measure the consistency of a candidate’s responses or the tendency to self-enhance.

The first scale measures a candidate’s inconsistent responding. This scale detects when an candidate’s response style indicates that the candidate is either not paying adequate attention to the meaning of the prompts or may be attempting to “game the test” by answering more favorably.

The second scale measures the extent to which a candidate is exaggerating strengths or minimizing weaknesses. If the candidate is doing so to such an extent that their score is unreliable, then a warning is provided.

If a candidate receives a high score on either of these validity checks, warning messages are displayed in the score report to indicate that the results are invalid.

See also Guides for Interpreting Score Reports.

Involuntary Turnover

In employment, turnover refers to any time a current employee leaves the company and is replaced by a new employee. Involuntary turnover is one type of turnover that occurs when an employee is terminated from a position. Employees may be let go for a wide range of reasons, including unsatisfactory job performance or inappropriate behaviour, often called counterproductive work behaviour (CWB).

Many of the issues that cause involuntary turnover can be minimised by administering pre-employment tests in the hiring process. For example, one of the main causes of involuntary turnover is that new employees do not digest and apply the training they are given in a satisfactory manner; aptitude and skills tests can predict learning ability and the likelihood that an applicant will successfully complete training.

Similarly, certain personality tests can be used to assess how likely an employee is to engage in counterproductive work behaviours that can negatively affect an organisation. Some examples of counterproductive work behaviours include theft, tardiness, fraud, and time-wasting. Integrity tests can be administered to assess if an applicant is likely to be a productive, reliable, and conscientious employee who is less likely to engage in inappropriate behaviour in the workplace.


Job Fit

Job fit is a concept that refers to how well an employee is suited for his or her position. Hiring employees who are the best fit for their positions is a great way for an organisation to decrease turnover (both voluntary and involuntary) and to improve employee retention rates. In general, employees who are well-suited for their positions will be happier and more productive, which can have a positive impact on company morale and ultimately benefit a company’s bottom line.

There are endless factors that can influence job fit, or job suitability. Personality, for instance, can have a major effect on how happy or content an individual will be in a particular position. Job candidates who are non-assertive may be unhappy in a managerial position, while extroverted individuals may be dissatisfied working in a role that involves minimal human interaction. Employment personality tests can be used to assess a wide range of personality traits associated with job fit so that companies can feel more confident that their employees will be content in their positions.

Job Relatedness

Any criteria used during the hiring process must follow the rule of job-relatedness, which means that the criteria must measure a trait or skill that is job-related and consistent with business necessity. Discrimination legislation provides guidelines that prohibit discrimination against protected groups, including sex, race, age, disability, national origin, and more. While most hiring criteria lead to some level of disparate impact against protected groups, the use of these hiring criteria is legal as long as it is testing a job-related trait or skill.

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